In 2009 there were 2898 research units in Hungary (of which 1394 were in the higher education sector, 1307 in the business sector and 197 in other research institutions.
Source: Hungarian Central Statistical Office
The Hungarian Academy of Sciences was founded by Count István Széchenyi in the middle of the 19th century, with the aim of developing the Hungarian language and contributing to scientific work to be performed through using the Hungarian language. (At that time the official language in Hungary was German.) Széchenyi also advocated the publishing of Hungarian scientific books and magazines. Since 1870 the Academy has evolved to become the center of scientific activity in Hungary. 1946 saw an organizational restructuring of the Academy with the aim of excluding contemporary artists and writers. Reforms in the 1980s and 1990s led to the creation of the Széchenyi Academy of Art and Literature, meant to provide an elite platform for humanities.
The HAS encompasses several scientific research institutes throughout the country. (See the list of research institutes of HAS below.) The Academy's share in the Hungarian research capacity in terms of the total number of other Hungarian R&D organisations is around 10%.
The HAS is an autonomous public body based on the principle of self-government. It is composed of members of the Academy and by active representatives of science, holding a scientific degree (Ph.D or D.Sc).
Considering the number of research units HEIs have a central role in the Hungarian research sector. Also, the most intensive research publication activity takes place in the HEIs: 2/3 of all publications were written by researchers in this sector.
The Bay Zoltán Foundation (BZF) is one of the most important among the research units of foundations and associations. The BZF is the largest research foundation in Hungary, founded in 1992; it consists of 3 research units: the Institute for Biotechnology, the Institute for Material Science and Technology and the Institute of Logistics and Production Engineering.